An interesting article from the Wall Street Journal details how the hormone oxytocin has evolved over millenia from a simple molecule that helped mothers identify their offspring, to a key mediator in the formation of trust and altruistic feelings toward fellow members of one’s group, and even transforming the interspecies relationship between cavemen and wolves into the bond we find today between modern man and his dog.
More oxytocin innovations emerged. In the eons since mammals proliferated on earth, some primate and rodent species independently evolved pair-bonding (that is, sexual and/or social monogamy). In the brain, oxytocin is heavily involved in this as well. And as primates developed complex you-scratch-my-back-I-scratch yours relations, evolution adapted oxytocin to mediate the formation of trust and altruistic feelings toward fellow members of one’s group.
So evolution’s oxytocin R&D team has filed one compelling new patent after another. But something truly striking occurred sometime in the past 50,000 years (which is to say, over the last 0.01% of the time during which oxytocin has existed). During that evolutionary blink of an eye, humans embarked on something new, with oxytocin again in a leading role: the domestication of wolves.
How did this occur? Reporting in the journal Science, Miho Nagasawa of Azabu University in Japan and colleagues observed that modern dogs and their owners secrete oxytocin when they interact with each other. Remarkably, dogs who gaze the most at their humans during interactions had the biggest oxytocin rise—as did their humans.
Oxytocin spray – the ‘love hormone’ – is already being used by many marriage councilors as a therapeutic aid in ‘re-igniting the spark’. And scientific research is increasingly backing up this idea. In a 2012 study conducted by a team at the University of Zurich and published in the journal ‘Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience’, it was found that couples expressed greater positive behaviour towards each other when given puffs of oxytocin nasal spray :
Forty-seven couples, aged 20 to 50, who were married or had been cohabiting for at least a year, took part in the study at the University of Zurich. Couples chose a topic to discuss about which they continually disagreed, and then self-administered five puffs of either the oxytocin or a placebo spray.
Forty-five minutes later, each couple was left alone in a room and filmed while they talked about the subject that usually rubbed them up the wrong way.
At various times during the experiments, the researchers took saliva swabs to check for compounds that show how the nervous system is working. The results showed that, compared to those who had sniffed the placebo, women who had the oxytocin spray experienced a drop in nervous system activity, whereas in the men it went up. The men displayed increased positive behaviour; the women became more friendly.
There is only one oxytocin nasal spray being sold online presently aimed at improving the relationships of married couples – click the image below for more details :
Oxytocin has long been known to play a key role in social bonding between humans, but now researches have found that it can even make dogs more friendly towards their owners :
An oxytocin nasal spray can strengthen the bond between you and your pet dog, a new study has found.
Researchers studied how 16 pet adult dogs of different breeds behaved after they were exposed to an oxytocin spray.
Oxytocin or ‘love hormone’ is a naturally occurring hormone released by the pituitary gland.
The scientists recorded any instance of bonding behaviour that the dogs showed with other familiar dogs as well as with their owners.
The behaviours included sniffing, licking, gentle touching with the nose or paw, playing and resting in contact with the other’s body.
Researchers found that after receiving the oxytocin spray, dogs displayed more affiliative behaviours and paid more attention to their owners
Researchers have found another unexpected benefit of oxytocin – the hormone commonly associated with social functioning has now been discovered to play a possible role in the regeneration of muscles in aging mammals.
A few other biochemical factors in blood have been connected to aging and disease in recent years, but oxytocin is the first anti-aging molecule identified that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical use in humans. “Unfortunately, most of the molecules discovered so far to boost tissue regeneration are also associated with cancer, limiting their potential as treatments for humans. Our quest is to find a molecule that not only rejuvenates old muscle and other tissue, but that can do so sustainably long-term without increasing the risk of cancer.”
The new study determined that in mice, blood levels of oxytocin declined with age. They also showed that there are fewer receptors for oxytocin in muscle stem cells in old versus young mice. To tease out oxytocin’s role in muscle repair, the researchers injected the hormone under the skin of old mice for four days, and then for five days more after the muscles were injured. After the nine-day treatment, they found that the muscles of the mice that had received oxytocin injections healed far better than those of a control group of mice without oxytocin. “The action of oxytocin was fast. The repair of muscle in the old mice was at about 80 percent of what we saw in the young mice.”
Interestingly, giving young mice an extra boost of oxytocin did not seem to cause a significant change in muscle regeneration. “This is good because it demonstrates that extra oxytocin boosts aged tissue stem cells without making muscle stem cells divide uncontrollably.” The researchers also found that blocking the effects of oxytocin in young mice rapidly compromised their ability to repair muscle, which resembled old tissue after an injury.
Read more at : https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2014/06/oxytocin-and-muscle-regeneration-in-aging.php
Fresh studies into Oxytocin conducted by a team of American and Italian researchers have given further hope that the hormone may form the basis of a possible treatment for autism in kids. The study did not look at autism itself, but it did find that oxytocin may help to promote social skills in babies, just as other studies appear to have found a similar effect on social skills in adults.
The study found that monkey babies given oxytocin were better able to mimic facial expressions of care givers associated with social skills better than monkeys not given the hormone.
These results not only suggest that oxytocin may have a positive effect on social interaction among children with autism, but it can provide a model for studying early neurobiology and social behavior during development. Jerrold Meyer, behavioral endocrinologist of UMass Amherst calls these findings “exciting,” according to Science Codex. Further research on the breastfeeding hormone could help in developing new forms of treatment for developmental disorders of social behaviors.
In a similar 2013 study, the “love hormone” was found to help autistic children bond with others, although the effects did not last long. This suggests there should be considerations on whether this could be used as a treatment for social impairments. A single dose of the chemical improved brain responses to facial expressions and could be used rather as an add-on to the behavioral therapies for autistic people. The chemical one way or another, holds the key to possible autism treatment, since it plays a crucial role in bonding and trust.
Read More at : http://www.medicaldaily.com/oxytocin-may-help-promote-social-skills-babies-could-love-hormone-hold-key-autism-treatment-279366
Treatment with the hormone oxytocin boosts brain activity and improves recognition of emotions in people with autism, according to two small studies published in February1, 2.
Oxytocin is a chemical messenger linked to a long list of social behaviors, ranging from empathy to monogamy, in both people and rodents. Preliminary studies suggest that short-term treatment with oxytocin may boost social skills such as emotion recognition in some people with autism. The effects of long-term treatment have not yet been rigorously studied.
It has long been known that oxytocin plays a leading role in the bonding behaviour of mothers and their newly born children. There is now a growing list of scientific studies that indicate that oxytocin spray could be used as a basis for treating patients with autism or any other type of social cognitive problems.
Oxytocin is known as the ‘love hormone’. The incredible effects that this powerful hormone have on relationships, trust, and sexual and romantic attraction are well established and scientificly proven. Oxytocin effects both men and women, building rapport, attraction, interest, emotional and sex appeal. Ensure that Valentines Day is the most romantic day of your life with the world’s most famous oxytocin spray :
Researcher in Australia claim that a modified version of the love hormone oxytocin may form a successful treatment for irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal pain. Currently, there is no drug that directly treats bowel pain, despite up to 11% of Americans suffering from the illness. Using an ‘improved’ version of the oxytocin molocule, the team from the University of Queensland were able to create a drug that passed successfully into the digestive system. The researchers found that their oxytocin drug had ‘significant potential’ to alleviate the symptoms of chronic bowel problems.
read more at : http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-01-oxytocin-abdominal-pain.html
Oxytocin is known as ‘the love drug’ for its ability to enhance social interactions including maternal behaviour, partnership and bonding.
Professor Alewood, from UQ’s Institute for Molecular Bioscience, said the molecule they had developed – a version of oxytocin with improved stability – showed significant potential in alleviating abdominal pain.
“It can potentially survive in the digestive tract until it reaches the gut,” he said.
“This molecule acts on oxytocin nerve receptors in the bowel, which display increased sensitivity in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome.”
Professor Alewood said it had no effect on healthy gut tissue, which was an important advantage in drug development where minimising side effects is crucial.
Chronic abdominal pain is a major health problem, with irritable bowel syndrome alone affecting around 11 per cent of the Western population.
David Pearce is one of the most prominant philosophers of ‘Transhumanism’ – a movement which actively supports the idea the humans should improve themselves through science into something more than human. Pearce is a vegetarian and believes that through science it will be possible to build a pain free world for all sentient beings and that this should be a moral goal of humanity.
This utiliatarian philosopher, who believes that the basis of morality is the pursuit of happiness for all, has a particular interest in the hormone oxytocin and it’s possible uses in bringing about a better world in which people are more trusting and loving of each other, and other animals. He has a website devoted entirely to this end :
see also : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Pearce_%28philosopher%29
- It is believed that both men and women are more likely to be faithful to their partners when influenced by the love hormone oxytocin.
- The best natural way to produce oxytocin in both yourself and another, and hence feelings of trust and intimacy, is to hug them or even have sex with them!
- Oxytocin plays a key role in the reproductive system, from attraction, to breast feeding, to mother/child bonding.
- Oyxtocin was first synthetically proudced soon after its precise amino-acid sequence was discovered in 1953.
- Oxytocin has been shown to posess healing properties and to reduce inflammation.
- Oxytocin is released by both men and women during orgasms and sex.
More facts about oxytocin at : http://oxytocin.net/oxytocin-2/oxytocin-the-love-molecule/